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2020-11-19 10:35:18 德诚教育 6

  词汇英语学习的基础,是每天都需要更新记忆的,今天德诚教育为大家整理了自考英语二教材内容的精讲讲义,希望对各位自考生有帮助。

广州德诚教育中心

  TextA What Is a Decision?


  课文精讲


  Para.5


  At the managerial level, decision making includes limiting alternatives as well as identifying them, and the range is from highly limited to practically unlimited.


  1.在as well as 结构中,强调前者 limiting alternatives ,不强调后者


  译为:作决策包括限定选择和识别选择,或者译成:不仅包括识别选择还要包括限定选择(除了包括识别选择外还有限定选择)。


  2.practically ad. 实际上,事实上(在口语中译为,几乎,简直)在本文中是几乎的意思。例如:几乎是不可能practically impossible。


  Para.6


  Decision makers must have some way of determining which of several alternatives is best - that is, which contributes the most to the achievement of organizational goals. An organizational goal is an end or a state of affairs the organization seeks to reach. Because individuals (and organizations) frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals, the best choice may depend on who makes the decision. Frequently, departments or units within an organization make decisions that are good for them individually but that are less than optimal for the larger organization. Called suboptimization, this is a trade-off that increases the advantages to one unit or function but decreases the advantages to another unit or function. For example, the marketing manager may argue effectively for an increased advertising budget. In the larger scheme of things, however, increased funding for research to improve the products might be more beneficial to the organization.


  3.An organizational goal is an end or a state of affairs the organization seeks to reach.


  一个省略that或which的定语从句,修饰a state of affairs “事物的状态,事态”。


  to seek to do sth追求,争取,寻求,设法(去做某事)。


  4.Because individuals frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals, the best choice may depend on who makes the decision.


  本句中,because 引导了原因状语从句;在主句中,who makes the decision 是作depend on 的介词宾语从句。


  5.Frequently,departments or units within an organization make decisions that are good for them individually but that are less than optimal for the larger organization.


  两个that引导的都是定语从句,修饰decisions。less than 在此做状语,表示否定的含义, less than optimal “不太理想”。


  例如:This job is less than perfect. 这份工作不十分理想(完美)。


  6.this is a trade-off that increases the advantages to one unit or function but decreases the advantages to another unit or function.


  that引导定语从句,修饰trade-off “权衡”;increases 和 decreases 是定语从句的并列谓语。